Claude Debussy is, on this his birthday today in 2019, the last essential composer. Different than great (a subjective judgement) or important (which can be quantified to some extent), essential means that music is unimaginable without him—the current state of music and its history over the previous 130 years would not exist.
The clichéd story of modern music has long placed Stravinsky and Schoenberg as opposed pathways; toward tonality or atonality. The historical context is that music in the late 19th century became increasingly unstable, no longer resolving harmonically or formally. Schoenberg’s view of the future was to surrender to the inevitable and haul his beloved Brahms along with him, while Stravinsky refreshed the models of the past with new language, true modernism.
Debussy (born in 1862, twelve years before Schoenberg and twenty before Stravinsky) bypassed this false dichotomy by following his taste and values. Blessed with astonishing talent, he made music modern in an organic, non-theoretical and un-ideological way. His path was influenced by non-Western music, and with that and his ear, he created forms in which the tools of tonality found new purpose and utility.
The result is music that is enduringly popular with the general public because it is so beautiful. The sheer pleasure Debussy produces masks how revolutionary he was—we have been conditioned to expect the avant-garde to be ugly and difficult, forgetting that Kandinsky was avant-garde, as was Rothko. But so much of the piano music, the ballet Jeaux, andPelléas et Mélisande is avant-garde, especially the latter, which is still so revolutionary as an opera that it has yet to be honored with a satisfactory response.
The legacy of tonality in the 20th and 21st centuries is entirely indebted to Debussy. Stravinsky led the way out of the dead end of serial atonality, but he went through the gate Debussy had built.
The catalogue is overflowing with excellent recordings, and 2018, the centennial of his death, brought many worthwhile additions, the best of which are a series of albums put out by Harmonia Mundi and selected piano music played by Stephen Hough.
Debussy was also making music at the dawn of recording technology, and there are wonderful examples of his music played by musicians who were contemporaries and colleagues, including the finest—and most French—recording of Pelléas, fantastic recordings of the orchestral music, and some of his own playing.
- Claude Debussy: The Complete Works the finest single collection (Deutsche Gramaphon’s Debussy Edition is a solid, though less complete, alternative.
- Pelléas et Mélisande this recent recording from Simon Rattle is the best modern version.
- Debussy: His First Performers fascinating history, and with musicians like Alfred Cortot, Ernst Ansermet, and Désiré-Émile Inghelbrecht, some of the finest interpretations available.
- Debussy: Les Trois Sonatas—The Late Works his sonatas are tremendous, singular works, played by Alexander Melnikov, Isabelle Faust, Jean-Guihen Queyras, and others.
- Orchestral Music: stick with the leading names and you can’t go wrong. If forced to make a choice, I would go with Haitink for modern versions and Inghelbrecht’s superb early recordings.
- Piano Music: as above, there are so many top-flight recordings. Gordon Fergus-Thompson made the best modern recordings (they are a great value), and the early ones from Marius-François Gaillard are great.
- String Quartet: more impossible choices. Always paired with Ravel’s String Quartet, the recent Jerusalem Quartet version is my current favorite, Quatour Ébène is near the same level (and they add the Fauré String Quartet), and my old standby has always been the Quartetto Italiano (currently out of print).